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K. M. G. A. Kasturi
During the last year and particularly in last few months, the world witnessed a dramatic unprecedented rise in food prices. From January to March in 2008, US wheat export price rose by 17 percent. Key grain prices have risen by 40 percent to 130 percent in the last year. The World Bank points out that global food prices have risen by 80 percent since 2005, while wheat prices have increased by 200 percent. The costs of other staples such as rice and soybeans have also hit record highs, while corn is at its most expensive in 12 years. The increasing prices of grains are also pushing up the price of meat, poultry eggs and diary products. If prices keep rising, more and more people around the globe will be unable to afford the food they need to alive, and without help they will become desperate.
According to the United Nations World Food Programme increasing prices of food is currently the biggest crisis in the world. The rising food prices have led spreading poverty and hunger in developing countries and have triggered food crisis in 36 countries, all of which will need extra help. As the World Bank says, the threat of malnutrition is the forgotten problem.
Several factors have contributed to the rising food prices. These include inadequate production of food, rising demand from emerging countries and growing populations, escalating oil prices and shifting lands from food cultivation to bio fuels.
Factors contributed to the rising food prices
Several distinct weather and climate related incidents have caused disruptions in food production during last few years. Parts of China, Australia, Canada and New Zealand among others experienced droughts, while large areas of China, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka faced floods. Weather condition reduced the wheat crop in Canada by 20 to 25 percent. Milk production in New Zealand fell drastically and rice production in Australia fell significantly.
Last year Australia, the second largest exporter of wheat experienced its worst drought for over a century and saw its wheat crop shrink by 60 percent and rice harvest fell by as much as 98 percent. Heat wave in California in 2006, which killed a large number of farm animals, unseasonable rains in Kerala in 2008 which destroyed a large amount of grain, cyclone Nargis in Burma which destroyed rice harvest are among the other events that have negatively affected food production.
The rise in global temperature caused by pollution is also beginning to disrupt food production in many countries. According to the United Nations, an area of fertile soil the size of Ukraine is lost every year because of drought, deforestation and climate instability.
Sharp rise in oil prices
A major factor contributed in rising food prices is the sharp rise in oil prices during the last few months which pushed the cost of agriculture production considerably and increased transportation costs for all foods. The high cost of oil means increasing costs in the use of machinery, higher costs of fertilizer, insecticides and chemicals used in the cultivation of crops, raised the cost of food production.
According to the World Bank, fertilizer prices have risen 150 percent in the last five years. This has had a major impact on food prices, as the cost of fertilizer contributes over a quarter of the overall cost of grain production in the United States, which is responsible for 40 percent of world grain exports.
Sharp rise in oil prices in the recent past can be seen as follows.
Oil prices during 2008
Price per barrel in US $
03rd June 2008
17th March 2008
29th April 2008
15th May 2008
21st May 2008
05th July 2008
01st August 2008
14th August 2008
21st August 2008
29th August 2008
02nd September 2008
16th September 2008
Increasing use of grains for production of bio fuels.
Rising oil prices and concerns over global warming have turned attention of many countries in the production of bio fuels. During the last few years, a large amount of grain had been used for the production of bio fuels. It has been projected that in 2008, ethanol distilleries would use 114 million tons of grain (28 percent of projected US grain harvest) in the production of bio fuels.
With rising oil prices and global warming we can expect the demand for bio fuels to increase in the future. Increase in production of bio fuels will push food prices up by increasing demand for grains and displacing land use for normal agricultural activities. By now, 16 percent of US agricultural land formerly planted with soya bean and wheat are been used for growing corn for bio fuels.
According to the recent analysis by United Nations, there is an accelerating demand for bio fuels. The global drive for a new green fuel to power cars, lorries and planes is worsening world food shortages and threatening to make billions go hungry.
The United States, United Kingdom and other European countries have enthusiastically encouraged production of bio fuels as the solution to escalating oil prices and global warming. But now experts are warning that this could all be a disastrous mistake. Converting large amounts of land to crop for producing bio fuels is reducing food production just when the world needs to increase it. According to the World Bank, this is putting pressure on countries’ precarious food supplies. There are plans by more than 20 countries to boost production of bio fuels over the next decade. However, it is very hard to imagine how we can see the world growing enough crops to produce renewable energy and as the same time meet the enormous demand for food.
Increasing demand for food from emerging countries.
Another main reason for rising world food prices is the increasing demand for food from the two large emerging countries of Asia, China and India due to both increase in population and rises in per capita incomes with high economic growths.
Though the growth rates of population in these two countries, particularly in China are low, with their huge populations, the annual increase in population in each is above one million. With the increases in per capital incomes their demand for food has increased considerably.
With the increases in per capita incomes, a new middle class of more than 600 millions in China and India has increased consumption of more quality food significantly. People who have become relatively rich are changing their eating habits consuming more meat and chicken. Average meat consumption of a Chinese consumer has increased from 20 kg a year in 1985 to over 50 kg a year in 2007. This places a huge demand for grains as production of more meat requires more feed to raise more animals. According to the estimates of Paul Krugman, it takes 700 calories worth of animal feed to produce a 100 calories piece of beef. Therefore, increasing demand for meat creates an extra demand for grain.
In addition to China and India, there were also increases in demand for food from oil exporting countries in the Middle East and from Russia and Eastern Europe due to economic growth in these countries. The demand for meat from all developing countries has doubled since 1980.
The impact of the rising food prices on developing countries
Currently, the world food production is not adequate to feed its population. Constraints in supply and increasing demand from emerging economies would ensure high prices of food. This food crisis will affect developed and developing countries in two different ways. In developed countries, this would appear as high prices of food while it would be shortages of food in addition to high prices in developing countries. In developing countries, a majority of the population spend a large proportion of their income on food. With rising prices of food they would not be able to afford the minimum daily requirements of food. This would push more people into poverty, malnutrition and hunger.
Spreading of hunger and malnutrition could be aggravated by the fact that many developing countries that receive food aid will not receive the same amount. Aid agencies fear that they can no longer afford to feed the same number of mouths unless they get some emergency funding. The World Food Programme which feeds 73 millions of the Worlds most destitute each year, says they are already coping with 55 percent rise in food aid costs.
Some experts predict that world food markets will be locked into an inflationary spiral for at least four years. But some others predict that this could last for a decade or more. According to Powell, this is a step increase, not a peak to be followed by a trough. We are seeing the end of the era of cheap food.
The only people who could benefit from rising price of food are the farmers. Increase in farm incomes could reduce poverty and ensure food security at household level. However, this is possible only if the real incomes of the farmers are increased.
What are the solutions?
It will not be an easy task to find solutions to this problem as several factors have contributed to the problem.
Can the world food production be increased? Land and other resources needed to increase production are scarce. With growing population, more and more land is being used for houses and roads. Further, clearing land for agricultural activities can contribute to global warming. Other option is increasing productivity of food production. This needs to use oil based inputs that will increase production cost and hence food prices. There are suggestions that productivity can be increased by planting genetically improved plants. However, there are oppositions from the environmentalists that they are not environment friendly.
Halting the production of bio fuel would be a solution as more and more agricultural land are converted to production of grains for bio fuel production. Countries like the US that backed bio fuels by providing subsidies have invested largely on this. It would not be easy to reverse the process now.
Finding a way to control rising oil prices would help reducing food prices. One possible way to do this is to look for alternative energy sources.
It would not be possible to find a global solution to this crisis. But each country could look for the solutions that match with their resource availability and their needs.
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Farmers of the Uva province having been the targete of recent LTTE attacks, and driven from their land and livelihood have now resorted to arming themselves in the possibility of future attacks.
The Uva province once considered as the major supplier of rice and vegetables for the whole island is now compelled to allow its produce to be used as fodder by wild elephants. The farmers who toil amidst protests and strikes are now at the mercy of terrorists.
Recently a bus plying along the Buttala Niyadella route was the target of a terrorist bomb which claimed 30 innocent lives.
This was followed by the shooting of six chena farmers in Welisara. Since the shooting, the Chena farmers in Okkampitiya gave up their livliehood for fear of their lives. Three thousand acres of chena cultivation crops such as peanut, maize and Kurukan where abandoned. The farmers claim that some crops were harvested by the LTTE.
“We have struggled to cultivate our lands having struggled with the tigers and the elephants. Despite not having an education and cultivated these lands and when it was time to reap the harvest these miserable farmers were killed and we are unable to go to our lands. The government has said they will provide protection. But they have provided guns to only a few farmers at Okkampitiya. It is difficult to look on while the land we cultivated for our food is destroyed in this manner,” laments H.M. Leslie, a young farmer of the area who cultivated about ten acres.
Recalling the incident B.M. Kusumawathie (40) said, “after bus bombing in Buttala the Tigers came to our Chena. They killed my elder brother and all those who died are my relations. The police did not come to even bring the corpses and my younger brother only did this. We live by these cultivations and this time we were blessed with a good harvest. The Tigers are still roaming near the mountains and pluck the maize which we’ve cultivated.”
Principal of the Wijayaba Maha Vidyalaya at Okkampitiya, V.M Nandasena pointed of the 2186 children only 55 were present at the reopening of school. There are no buses and some teachers are afraid to come. The villagers are still living elsewhere. The people of this area simple lives they know nothing about the war or security.”
While few policeman patrol the streets of Okkampitiya villagers still live in a state of fear.
Villagers with old fashioned shot guns which operate using gun powder guard the area along with the Police. Villagers who don’t possess guns have now armed themselves with cleavers and jungle knives.
By Siriniseya – Kataragama
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Twenty five year old Prasadi Purnima Jayamanne is the youngest in a family of four.As she displayed early signs of academic brilliance her parents were keen to give her every opportunity to further her studies. After attending the village primary school at Pambala Chilaw she moved on to Sugathananda Secondary school in Karukkuwa where she passed her GCE O/L examination with four credits and a Distinction for English.She then moved on to Senanayake National School in Madampe for her Advanced Level examination which she passed but failed to gain admission to university.
She passed the entrance examination to enter the college of education in 2004 and passed out with a merit pass at the finals specializing as an English teacher. At present she is registered as an external student at Sri Jayawardenepura University and hopes to sit for her GAQ examination this year.
When she passed out of the teachers training college the Ministry of Education held interviews for Merit Pass holders to be appointed to national schools. All other English diploma holders who passed out with her were fortunate to receive appointments to schools within the Puttlam district. Prasadi Purnima was appointed to a Piyawara School-Anura Vidyalaya in the Kebithigollawa Educational zone. While all her batch mates found schools they could travel to from their homes Prasadi Purnima is 200 kilometers away from her home. What she does not comprehendis that when those who did not even obtain merit passes were given schools near their homes she was appointed to a school in the NCP. “I thought that on my performance at the finals and the general assumption that those who obtained merit passes would be given national schools I will get an appointment within the district so that Icould be near my aging parents and also be able to look after the child of My brother whose wife passed away about two years ago. As I had faith in the system and also because I hardly knew any persons of influence I never attempted to canvass for a school within the district.”
This bright young lass now has to spend Rs.3000 per month for her board and lodging in Padawiya and also has to travel to Colombo every week end for her classes for her external degree course. At present there are 169 vacancies for English teachers in the Puttalam district. Prasadi Purnima is bitterly disappointed about her plight. Yet she says “ I would like to be in a school closer to my home so that I can devote more time for my studies and also manage with my salary of Rs.14000 per month. The best solution will be if I could be relocated while also providing a substitute English teacher for this school as there are English teachers who could be appointed to this school if the accepted procedure is followed. I have come to love these children who are eager to learn English and they should not be left in the lurch”. Influence peddling is a malaise that has engulfed the administration of the ministry of education specifically in the appointments and transfers of teachers said a high official of the Ministry when asked by GV to comment on the case of Prasadi Purnima.
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With the introduction of the open economy in Sri Lanka in 1977, imports of many items, services, tools and agricultural produce took place. About 10 years later not only agricultural produce, but seeds and many such items were imported and these were done by both government and private companies.
As the possibility of reaping better harvests existed with imported vegetable and fruit seeds, Sri Lankan farmers became inclined to it. However, to obtain a better harvest using these imported varieties of seeds, more fertilizers and chemicals are necessary. But when the farmers use fertilizers they don’t always reap the expected harvest.
If they reap this harvest, the produce entering the market causes an excessive supply and the prices tend to decline, thereby reducing the profits of the farmers. The reason for all this is the ignorance of the farmers with regard to the existing situation.
The traditional form of agriculture in Sri Lanka is under threat due to the importing of seeds with altered genetic make-up and also due to the use of various chemical fertilizers. Although, it has been recorded that 567 varieties of paddy were cultivated in 1920, the dwindling of these cultivations began with the use of imported chemical fertilizers in place of compost and carbonic fertilizer which was used earlier.
Due to imported varieties of vegetables and fruit seeds, the traditional varieties of Sri Lankan fruits and vegetables are becoming extinct. The imported varieties of papaw seeds such as “Red Lady” “Sisra” and “Purple Voy” have led to the disappearance of the Sri Lankan varieties.
The vulnerability of contacting viruses and diseases is more in areas such as Suriyawewa, Tissamaharama, Thanamalwila, Wellawaya, Anuradhapura and Bakamuna, where papaw is cultivated in plenty.
The deficiency of seeds where the genes have been altered is prominent here, and if the farmer is to counteract this, he should use expensive chemical manures, which increase his expenses.
At times, this occurs due to the internal connections of multi-national companies who import these seeds of changed genes, chemical fertilizers and weedicides. They themselves produce chemical fertilizers and weedicides necessary to counteract the viruses that could affect these plants borne from seeds of changed genes.
Seeds of changed genes of pumpkin, cucumber, tomatoes and sweet melon have replaced traditional seeds.
Due to experiments conducted by the Agriculture Research Institute of Maha Iluppallama, the cultivation of Soya as a secondary crop began in the dry zone. However, due to news spreading through society that this produce was the outcome of changed genes, and that it could be detrimental to health, the Soya farmer was placed in dire straits; very especially because “Triposha” which is given to pregnant mothers was a Soya product.
However, Health Authorities state that health conditions could be affected only from Soya seeds that contain altered genes and not from the produce harvested off local seeds. Yet, due to there being no facilities available for either the farmer or the consumer to distinguish the difference of the seeds, people are hesitant to buy Soya products, and by this the local farmer is harmed.
By now, the demand for traditional local fruits is falling due to the import of apples, pears, and grapes etc., which are fruits that contain altered genes, due to the taste, food values, colours and outlook of the imported varieties being more.
In the eighties, the food crops which had altered genes spread fast throughout Sri Lanka and due to this, a prohibition order under Gazette Notification 1178/18 of April 6, 2001 prohibited these mixed varieties of food. Thereby 23 varieties of food items under 7 categories were prohibited. Soya beans, seeds, soya flour, soya milk, soya sauce, soya cubes, corn flour, corn, food mixtures, produce containing corn, fresh tomatoes, smashed tomatoes, tomato sauce, tomato spreads, food items affiliated to tomatoes, cheese, potatoes, beet sugar and baking and alcoholic yeast.
Further, it has been disclosed that there are 64 varieties of produce with changed genes in the market.
By law importers of genetic food items must seek an approval license from the Food Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Health in keeping with the Food Ordinance No: 26 of 1980. People who do not submit to or defraud this condition could be subjected to six months imprisonment or a Rs. 10,000 fine would have to be paid or both together.
Agriculture seeds of changed genes are imported to the country in large quantities through private organizations and there is no existing method in this country to ascertain as to the quantity or whether they are really seeds of mixed genes. This is damaging to the traditional crops and produce of Sri Lanka as well as health.
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Farmers of most parts of the island have faced immense hardships as a result of the scarcity of seed paddy for them to sow in this ‘Yala’ season. The Department of Agriculture attributes this scarcity to the damage caused to the harvest by heavy rains poured during last ‘Maha’ season. Laboratory examinations revealed that most of the samples obtained from farmers registered for seed paddy were ineffective in fertility. Therefore it has been a big problem for the Department of Agriculture too, when providing good quality seed paddy to farmers.
The quantity of seed paddy produced in each season in Polonnaruwa which is one of the front line seed paddy producing districts in the island, is said to be 150,000 bushels approximately. This quantity is being produced by the seed paddy farm owned by the Department of Agriculture situated in Kaduruwela, Polonnaruwa as well as by other registered farmers. Palugasdamana Multipurpose Co-op Society provides more than100,000kgs out of this quantity in each season to the farmers of the area. Mr. T.G. Weerathunga, Chairman of said Co-op Society c points out that however, the new institutes have not been able to
produce even at least 50,000 kgs of seed paddy. He attributes this failure to unfavorable climatic conditions prevailed in previous ‘Maha’ harvest season.
“ In every season we provide over 100’000 kgs of seed paddy to the farmers. Palugasdamana Co-op Society is in the fore front of seed paddy suppliers of good quality.Farmers of the area have confidence in our seed paddy. But the heavy rains prevailed in previous season became an intense threat to our production.As a result of rains fell over several weeks the reproducibility of paddy has faded away.It is only 40% of reproducible paddy we have this time . Consequently we failed to produce the amount of seed paddy expected in contrast to previous seasons.”
Nearly about 17,000 bushels of seed paddy are being produced each season by the seed paddy farm of the Department of Agriculture (Kaduruwela).But Mr. Chandima Jayasingha , Manager of the farm cum Asst. Director of Agriculture (seed) states that they have failed to produce more than 8,000 bushels of seed paddy for this season. They have also faced immense problems when providing the amount of seed paddy required by farmers for this season, he further states.
According to Mr. Jayasingha the Department of Agriculture has decided as a solution, to purchase certain quantity of seed paddy of identified varieties from private cultivators whose harvests have not been adversely affected by rains.These purchases will be carried out after the samples of relevant stuffs being duly examined. A sum of rupees three lacks has been earmarked for this purpose and one kg. of ‘Nadu’ is expected to be purchased @ Rs. 40/= per kg.and ‘Samba’@ Rs. 42/50 per kg, said Mr. Jayasingha.
The severe scarcity of of seed paddy prevailing in Plonnaruwa, which is an one of the front line rice and seed paddy producing districts, badly affects the other part s of the island as well.
Good quality seed paddy.
It is well known that the fact that our trend towards the use of low quality seed paddy is a major reason for the decrease of harvest that we experienced recently. According to Mr. R.P.Upali, Deputy Director of Agriculture (expansion), it is only 20% of the total farmer population are engaged in the cultivation of paddy approved by the department. The countries such as Japan and Korea have been successful in obtaining very satisfactory harvests in consequence of using 100 % good seed paddy, Mr. Upaly stated.
Polonnaruwa district too had been successful in producing about 150,000bushels of seed paddy in each season, which was sufficient to fulfill the requirements of many agricultural districts of the island. In consequence of the adverse climatic conditions prevailed in previous harvesting season of ‘Maha’ the quantity of seed paddy could not be obtained as expected, and the examination of the samples obtained from the stocks supplied by registered private seed paddy suppliers as well as the co-op societies of the district reveals that most of what was received were also low in fertility and mixed with weedy stuff. Accordingly we may deprive more than 60% of our harvests this time, the Deputy Director further stated.
Deprivation of harvest.
It is clear that damage caused by the rain may result in paucity of food within the country.
Likewise it is not so difficult to understand that the increase in the price if rice as well as the scarcity of rice in the market are attributable to said natural disaster. The fact that the torrential rains fell on most of our paddy producing areas including north central province will have an impact over the future of our paddy cultivation, may not most probably be well known.
The fact that the only solution for the food crisis which is one of the challenges we are contemporarily facing, is to uplift the paddy cultivation in the country is unequivocal. What farmer population points out is that the consequences of the eruption of problems such as scarcity of seed paddy in an era which needs to explore new ways to uplift the production of our staple food may come in the guise of empty ears of corn instead of so called golden ones.
Fishing in troubled waters.
There are information at this moment to the effect that some well known agricultural organizations have resorted to capitalize on this position under the guise of finding solutions .It has been revealed that these companies sell seed paddy to farmers at various rates between Rs. 1,400/= and Rs.1,500/= per bushel. What is unfortunate is that we do no have a powerful hand to take action against these hypocrites who exploit the farmers despite the fact that there are so many personalities who hold ministerial positions in agriculture.
It is crystal clear that our paddy cultivation is now hell bent to be in jeopardy in consequence of the said problem too is seen as a burden amidst escalating cost of other agricultural inputs.
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A recent survey conducted by a social organisation in Savatkadu, Anaikodai Jaffna under a the supervision of a psychiatrist, revealed the silent suffering of generations who’ve witnessed the war first hand.
The killings, abductions and disappearances that take place daily have contributed to decades of mental agony which are finally taking its toll in the manifestation of an aggressive society.
The survey revealed that the majority of young widows had lost their husbands due to killings or abductions. All the young widows were with mental depression.
Their children in the age group of 1- 10 years displayed signs of stubbornness, urinating in the bed, and pain in the limbs. However it was indicated in the survey that these disorders were purely psychological impacts of the horror incidence they witnessed or heard.
The Elderly have now grown accustomed to the killings and abductions of their kith and kin including their children, in-laws and friends. They are tired of grieving; attending funerals, there’s no one to console one another; each and every family is victimised daily by the violent activity in Jaffna. They’ve learnt to control their feelings, they hardly laugh or cry.
Such emotions could lead to tendency frustration and finally develop in to long term psychological trauma. The survey also highlighted that community awareness programmes at the village level could help restore these people emotionally.
During the survey it was brought to our attention that a girl, returning from school asks her mother for food by threatening her with a cane. When we inquired about her family, we came to know that her father was abducted in front of the family at gun point.
The survey revealed that psychological trauma had no boundaries where well educated and rich families were affected as well as the poor.
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hqoaOh fya;=fjka W;=f¾ m%foaYj,ska wj;ekaj meñK” ;djld,sl l|jqrej, jir 17 la mqrd Èú f.jk uqia,sï cd;slhkag” fuu l|jqrej, uQ,sl jQ myiqlï lsisjla ;ju;a fkdue;sùu ksid uy;a wiSre;djkg uqyqK §ug isÿj we;’
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zzux bmÿfKa mq;a;,u l|jqf¾’ hdmkh” ls,sfkdÉÑh ux oel,d keye’ wfma wïu,d” ;d;a;,d lshkjd ta m%foaYj, wmsg” fyd| foam,;a” Ôj;ajk mßirhla ;snqKd lsh,d” kuq;a wo ug mdi,a hkak fj,d ;sfhkafka m%Yakj,ska msßÉp mßirhl b|,d’ ksoyfia wOHdmkh lrf.k hkak wo ug bvla keye’ ta foa ug ú;rla fkdfõ’ fï l|jqf¾ bkak yeu orefjl=gu fmdÿhs’
fla‘ rïidkals,sfkdÉÑfha Wm; ,enqfjls’ jir 10lg fmr fudyq fida,agka irKd.; l|jqrg meñK we;’ orejka fofofkl=f.a msfhl= jk rïidka ;ukaf.a w;aoelSï úia;r lf<a fï wdldrhgh’
zzux ls<sfkdÉÑfha b¢oaÈ l=vd fydag,hla lr,d Ôj;a jqfKa” thska ,enqK wdodhu fyd|gu we;s’ kuq;a mq;a;,fï ;sfhkafka ;r.hla’ ux oeka mq;a;,fï fydag,hl l=,shg jev lrkafka” ta ,efnk uqo,ska mjq, kv;a;= lrkak wudrehs’ kuq;a wms Ôj;a fjkak ´k’ fï l|jqf¾ fndkak” kdkak j;=r keye” jeisl<,s myiqlï fudkj;a keye’ wkka; jdrhla wms fï .ek n,Odßkag oekqï ÿkakd ;ju ta m%Yakj,g W;a;r ,enqfKa keye”
tia’ tï’ ðkakdls,sfkdÉÑfha Wm; ,enQfjls’ mq;a;,ug meñfKk úg Tyqg jhi wjqreÿ 12 lss’ ta mßirh yd fï mßirh .ek Tyqf.a y`vhs fï’
hqoaOh wdmq ksid ish,a,u fjkia jqKd
zzls,sfkdÉÑfha wfma ;d;a;g l=Uqre ;snqKd ug u;lhs” ;d;a;d fyd|g f.dú;eka l<d’ wms ld,d we|,d fyd|g ysáhd kuq;a hqoaOh wdmq ksid ta ish,a,u fjkia jqKd’ wms mq;a;,u l|jqf¾ ÿla ú¢kjd’ ;sfhk m%Yak bjrhla keye’ wmsg lrkafka l=vïudf.a ie,ls,s’ úfYaI ie,ls,s ukakdrfuka wdmq uqia,sïjrekag ú;rhs’ fudlo wmsj ksfhdackh lrk uka;%sjrfhla ;ju ke;s ksid fjkak we;s’ZZ
tiA’ tï fcß rdðka ls,sfkdÉÑfha Wm; ,nd mÈxÑj isg mq;a;,ug meñK irKd.; l|jqrelg fldgq ù isáhs’ fudyq ;u woyia oelajQfõ fï whqßks’
wms yeu ;ekskau wirKhs’
zzux újdylfhla” ug orejka fokafkla isákjd’ mq;a;,ug toaÈ ug jhi wjqreÿ 16hs’ hqoaOh ksid wmg ;snqK fiaru ke;sjqKd’ hqoaOh ke;s ojiaj, ls,sfkdÉÑfha fyd|g ld,h .; l<d’ fyd| wdodhï ud¾. wfma ;d;a;,dg ;snqKd’ mq;a;,ug toaÈ wfma ;d;a;,dg f.akak mq¿jka jqfKa we|f.k ysgmq we÷ï álhs’ wmsjhs ú;rhs’ fudlo t,a’à’à’B’ wmsj n,y;aldrfhka t<jd oud ksjdij, ;snqK foaj,a fld,a, lEjd’ wo mq;a;,fï wms ú¢kafka thg iudk ÿlla’ wms yeu ;ekskau wirKhs’
tia’tï Ndkq’ weh ls,sfkdÉÑfha Wm; ,nd we;s w;r tysÈ b;d fyd| Èú fmj;la f.jñka isáh§” hqoaOhg ueÈj thska negld Wmhd.;a ish¨ foam,u oud ;u ore u,a,ka urKfhka .,jdf.k ðú; wdrCIdj m;d m,d wd ;eke;a;shls’ weh wo l|jqf¾ Èú f.jhs’ fï wef.a y`vhs’
zzux orefjdahs ieñhhs tlal fyd`Èka ld,h .; l<d’ wmg m%Yak ;snqfKa fndafydau wvqfjka’ kuq;a ;=kafõ, ld,d” we`o,d i;=áka wms ysáhd’ orejkag fyd|g W.kajñka ysá wmg ta ish,a,u hqoaOh ksid wysñ jqKd’ wms wo fï l|jqf¾ f.jkafka mjla’
wms .ek fidhkak lsisu flfkla tkafka keye
wms .ek fidhkak wmg myiqlï fokak lsisu flfkla tkafka keye’ ta yskaod wms ;j;a wirKhs’ ta uÈjg wms bkak bvu w;S;fha ¨Kq f,ajd ;snq ia:dk’ ;o wõ rYañh ;sfnk ld,fhaÈ fuu bvu wêl f,i r;afjkjd’ tys fjki wmsg f;frkjd’ fudlo ta ldf,ag wfma orefjda WIaK;ajh wêl ùu fya;=fjka je,f`ok frda.j,g f.dÿreùu jeä fj,d ;sfhkjd’ fï tla l|jqrl /£ isák wj;ekajq iq¿ msßilf.a m%Yak muKs’
fmdÿfõ fuys jik ish¨ fokd u l|jqre Èúh ;=< fjfikafka wkka; jQ .eg¨ iuqodhhla iu`.sks’
ta .eg¨ Tjqka mq;a;,ug meñK jir 17 la f.ùhdu fjkqfjka mq;a;,u m%foaYfha ixúOdkh lr ;snq ck /,shlÈ ienejg u;= úK’ tu /,sh i|yd úis oyil muK msßila /iaj isáhy’ tys§ o fmdÿfõ ;ukaf.a m%Yak lsisjla úi|d ke;s nj;a” h<s ;uka mÈxÑj isá m%foaYhkg mÈxÑhg hdug wjYH myiqlï ilidfok f,i foia úfoia n,Odßka fj; n, lr isá fï ñksiqka tfia fkdue;skï ksoyfia ;u Èú fmj; f.jkakg uq,sl myiqlï fyda ,ndfok f,i b,a,Sï lf<a b;du;a wysxil f,isks’
- ysrdka m%shxlr chisxy